Direct observation on the reality of life in community, family, and numerous life aspects in an arena called social “village”.
Many conflicts among community groups have taken place in numerous regions and almost dominated by mass media for the last five years in 1998 through 2003. And riot among ethnical groups, such as in Sambas, Sampit, Kalimantan, as well as long-lasting religious conflict taking place in Ambon, Maluku, resulting in many deaths and the loss of properties, has consequently arisen the awareness how national integrity is severely unstable.
In such condition, it is highly important to take benefits of both significant and insignificant experiences in the frame of conflict resolution. The global important experience has obviously exhibited how the conflict as the result of ethnical and religious difference had irrevocably broken down statehood order in Balkan Peninsula in 1990s. The Federation of Yugoslavia had been broken into small countries in accordance with ethnical and religious strengthening.
Prior to the emergence of new-established countries, long-lasting intergroup conflict in the area which had been united for tens of years under the control of President Tito had actually been ignited. The author has witnessed himself when joining the mission of Stability Police Unit of Garuda Contingent XIV-8 UNTAES, under the umbrella of United Nations, in 1996-1997, how a country had to suffer the very severe concern for the civil war.
On the contrary, Indonesian people, which are very complex and comprising of more than 200 tribes, residing in the Archipelagos from Sabang to Merauke, are so unique that they can live in togetherness. The sense of brotherhood, as the result of long-lasting pain during colonization, has evoked shared awareness that we are one of Indonesians. Such strong desire to being united, as expressed by an Indonesian expert, Benedict Anderson (1991), nation serves as the imagined-community.
The most currently experience shows that the brotherhood union is now being tested. The rise of ethnical sentiment is very common taken into account on the perspective of ethnicity orientation. Social process trying to seek Indonesian identity keeps on going. Meanwhile, ethnical groups’ attitude and behavior identified as being bound on cultural values and ethnical community are sustainable in the reality of life. This is clearly reflected in the environment of association, language, custom, etc.
In such condition, social conflict has become latent danger. The conflict among groups of society in economic system order deemed as lack of fairness has frequently appeared as dominant factor of disintegration emergence. Moreover, attitude and behavior of community member, such as sense of more superior than another ethnic, primordial fanatic, have brought to the idea that leadership should be from its region and ethnic, as well as identity activation or ethnical solidarity for certain adverse goal. Frequently, mass violence involving two or more groups in society emerges as the manifestation of the aforementioned issues.
The best example of conflict resulting from resource struggling factor can be found in confrontation among people with different ethnic in Sambas, Sampit and Kalimantan, especially between Dayak and Madura. Dayak ethnic living in harmony with nature greatly relies on forest production, such as rattan, honey, resin, etc. The incoming huge capital of rights of forest utilization granted by central government has consequently brought about them, local people (Dayak ethnic), isolated from the place on which they greatly rely. The forest in which they collectively manage is suddenly made in plot and they are not permitted to access this. On the other hand, the Maduranese ethnic is commonly appointed to be labor and foreman in the field. They also hold position as labor of logger from the employer holding Right of Forest Ownership (HPH). Consequently, in people’s perspective, Maduranese has performed misconduct by seizing the inherited forest. This ethnical sentiment continuously occurs and has turned into stereotype. It is just like dried straw, conflict may easily be ignited.
Almost all conflicts among groups of society are always ignited by cruel treatment which is actually categorized into common crime. In Sambas, the conflict is ignited by quarrel among the youths in Dangdut music show which eventually results in cruel treatment. Such unsettled maltreatment has finally evoked huge and long-lasting hostility.
Such pattern can essentially be tracked from the beginning period of the emergence of various conflicts among groups of society taking place in various regions in Indonesia. In Tasikmalaya, West Java, for example, where the majority of Chinese ethnic have been the victims of mass anger taking place in the concluding year of 1996, this conflict is actually rooted from the vigilante action by certain local police group who maltreated a religious teacher of an Islamic cottage. They assume that their action is the revenge since their child is punished in the Islamic cottage.
The similar conflict also took place in Makassar in September 1997. The biggest riot in history of old city in eastern Indonesia bringing about five deaths, material loss of 17.5 billion rupiah, and destruction of approximately 2000 houses and shops, is rooted from maltreatment suffered by children by someone considered having mental disorder. Accidentally, the doer is a Moslem family. The delayed handling eventually results in Makassar City burnt.
The similar conflict also takes place in Ambon, interethnic riot which has penetrated to religious related conflict has caused thousands of deaths of the innocence, and thus it is important to perform evacuation leaving the very deep sadness. Subsequently, the riot in Ambon spread not only in Maluku Province, but also different regions which are previously free of conflict, such as Poso, Central Sulawesi.
In such critical situation, an important question sometimes occurs; may this nation be able to settle this complicated issue? Thus, brotherhood among the children of nation can be well maintained. Established upon such concern, the author decides to try to discover his science and knowledge concerning the interethnic of the nation, particularly for research study in Post-Graduation Program of Police Science in University of Indonesia.
We have frequently found important example, but unfortunately, we often miss the unimportant one and how small-scaled effort can prevent conflict spread in certain region with conflict sensitive. In return to this, the author then tries to observe social dynamics in a couple of villages with great extent of population density comprising of numerous ethnics; they are Muara Baru and Kalijodo, Penjaringan, North Jakarta. Thesis of Magister Science of Police Department entitled “Relationship among the Tribes in Society in Muara Baru, Penjaringan District, North Jakarta is completed in 2002.
This is anthropologic research. It is just similar to the common anthropologic research also called as qualitative research, direct observation on reality of life of the society, family, and all life aspect existing in the stage known as social “village”.
This is possibly due to the fact that the author is the police officer assigned in said area as the Head of Police Sector Headquarter (Polsek) of Metro Penjaringan, North Jakarta. The author feels be about to have challenging experience since the beginning of assignment. In this area, Kalijodo, Pejagalan, there was long-lasting conflict between two groups of society from the same region, West Sulawesi, Mandar and Bugis Makassar. Sometime, the conflict penetrated and involved another ethnic, the group of people of Serang, Banten. The quarrel between two groups of site owner in the area has turned the area known as the place for mashers, has been colored with mass quarrel among gangs with different ethnic.
In contrary to Kalijodo, Kampung Muara Baru with almost similar complexity of people, it could prevent from any conflict among groups. On the other hand, in Kalijodo Area, during the period of 2000 – 2002, it has been filled with brutal story of quarrel between two groups. This is what the author tries to disclose. Why can one village with multi-ethnics prevent from conflict among groups? While in Kalijodo to the contrary, similar conflict is difficult to resolve, thus there is necessity to involve security apparatus to settle the Conflict?
The conflict among people in Kalijodo has also received special attention from mass media in Jakarta. Kompas, Suara Pembaharuan, and other media, including television news report, such as SCTV, have presented live show of reconciliation process between two groups of people in conflict. This obviously indicates special attention for the purpose of preventing any conflict among different ethnics in Jakarta as the capital of this country.
Many experts from different disciplines, particularly sociologist and anthropologist have also contributed their comment on the conflict in northern coastal area of Jakarta, taking place almost through the year of 2002. At the same time, the author finds it very helpful in reconstructing the series of events which had happened two years ago.
This is actually insignificant portrait, rather than horrendous, big story. However, the experience in observing and resolving various problems in diverse societies in limited scale will be contributed into this book.
For example, in developed countries, such as America, the story about cop always becomes the interesting one. Quite great number of cops has also expressed their experience in writing, to name a few, Ed Nowicki, the former of Detective in New York Police Department (NYPD) who writes, True Blue: True Stories About Real Cops or Bob Vernon who tells about Cops of Los Angeles in the book LA. Cop: Peacemaker in Blue.
I expect these will enrich literatures and conflict resolution study materials in the society across Indonesia, and of course, with reference to different background and dynamics which are far more complex.
The author will not forget to deliver gratitude to the beloved wife, Nany Krishna Murti, the son and daughter, Alza and Althaf, who have loss much valuable time, during the book completion, also to the Lecturers of Police Science of University of Indonesia, who is impossible to name one by one, particularly Prof. Dr. Parsuadi Suparlan and Mayor General Police (Purn) Drs. Koesparmono Irsan who have given their time to guide me in this thesis, Dr. Imam B. Prasodjo who has during his rush hours been available to provide the acknowledgment of this book, and Dr. Adrianus Meliala who has contributed valuable criticisms and suggestions.
The author would like to say thank you very much for the Head of Police of Republic of Indonesia, especially the Head of Police Area Headquarter (Polda) of Metro Jaya, Inspector General of Police, Drs. Firman Gani and Inspector General of Police, Drs. Makbul Padmanegara, the former of the Head of Police Area Headquarter (Polda) of Metro Jaya, for their guidance during the book preparation.
Appreciation is also given to the journalists, Gunawan, Yono, Nunus, who have taken part in helping me through this research, Edy Budiyarso, a journalist of Tempo who has donated valuable input in preparing this book. The author feels very glad to be discussion partner. The author would also like to deliver great esteem for social figures and those from Social Foundation of Community of South Sulawesi, in North Jakarta, who have also offered great worth of contribution in reconciliation process in Kalijodo and also for all members of Polsek Metro Penjaringan who have taken important part in completing this book.